Category Archives: Economy

Choosing Thoughts

Is it possible to cause a shift in the universe just by the way we think, or by the way we think, or by controlling our thoughts?

Thoughts come from the Universe. We are an integral part of that universe. We may say that we exist inside the thoughts that exist in the Universe. So we are nothing but the thoughts; and our thoughts are a link to the vast universe. We could argue endlessly by whether the thoughts are imposed upon us, or whether we have the choice to control our thoughts. I would like to choose a position ‘We can choose our thoughts’, to start with. Tht seems realistic and easy. It gives me the satisfaction of being in control of my life and my mind. By choosing the right books, right information, I can control the power of thinking.

PRINCIPLE 9: POWER OF THE MASTERMIND – THE DRIVING FORCE

Plans are inert and useless without sufficient power to translate them into action.

Power is “Organised and intelligently directed KNOWLEDGE”.

Power is ORGANISED EFFORT sufficient to enable an individual to transmute DESIRE into an equivalent outcome (Monetary Equivalent).

ORGANISED EFFORT is produced through the coordinated effort of two or more people, who work toward a DEFINITE end, in a spirit of harmony.

Power is required for accumulation of money. Power is required for retention of money after it has been accumulated.

SOURCES OF KNOWLEDGE

  1. Infinite Intelligence
  2. Accumulated Experience
  3. Experiment and Research

When the minds of two people are coordinated in a spirit of harmony, the spiritual units of energy of each mind form an affinity, which constitutes the psychic phase of the Master Mind.

Man’s brain may be compared to and electric battery. A group of batteries provide more energy than a single battery.

When two or more people in a spirit of HARMONY, and work toward a definite objective, they place themselves in a position, through that alliance, to absorb power directly from the great universal storehouse of Infinite Intelligence. This is the greatest of all sources of power. It is the source to which a genius turns. It is the source to which every great leader turns. (whether he may be conscious to this fact or not.

Gandhi accomplished a miracle, for it is a miracle when two hundred million people can be induced (not forced to) cooperate in a spirit of harmony for a limitless time. If you doubt that this is a miracle, try to induce any two people to cooperate in a spirit of harmony for any length of time.

Anybody can wish for riches, and most people do, but only a few know that a definite plan, plus a Burning Desire for wealth, are the only a dependable means of accumulating wealth.

Think and Grow Rich Principle 7 – Decision: The Mastery of Procrastination

DECISON: THE MASTERY OF PROCRASTINATION Every time you open your mouth in front of a person who has abundance of knowledge, you display to that person your exact stock of knowledge, or lack of it. Genuine wisdom is conspicuous through modesty and silence. If you talk about your plan too freely, you may be surprised to learn that some other person has beaten you to your goal by PUTTING INTO ACTION ahead of you, of which you talked about unwisely. Let one of your first decisions be to KEEP A CLOSED MOUTH AND OPEN EYES AND EARS. TELL THE WORLD WHAT YOU INTEND TO DO, BUT FIRST, SHOW IT Deeds and not words what count most. Analysis of several hundred people who had accumulated fortunes well beyond a million dollar mark, disclosed the fact that every one of them had the habit of REACHING A DECISION PROMPTLY, and changing these decisions slowly. The value of the decision depends upon the courage required to render them. The great decisions, which served the foundation of civilisation, were reached by assuming great risks, which often meant possibility of death.

FREEDOM OR DEATH ON A DECISION Lincoln’s decision to issue the Proclamation of Emancipation, which gave freedom to coloured people of America, was rendered with full understanding that this act would mean death to thousands of men on the battlefield. In the end, it cost Lincoln his life. That required courage. The greatest of all decisions as far as America is concerned was reached in Philadelphia on July 4, 1776, when 56 men signed their names on a document which they well knew would bring freedom to Americans, or will leave everyone of the 56 hanging from a gallows. In union there is strength. The citizens of colonies had been waging disorganised warfare against the British soldiers, through incidents similar to Boston riot, but nothing of benefit had been accomplished. Their individual grievance had not been consolidated under one Mastermind. No group of individuals had put their hearts, minds, souls and bodies together in one definite DECISION to settle their difficulty with the British once and for all until Adams, Hancock and Lee got together. Socrates’ decision to drink the cup of poison, rather than compromise in his personal belief, was a decision of courage. It turned time ahead a thousand years, and gave people then unborn, the right of freedom of thought and speech.

UNDP – Sustainable Development Goals

One of the reasons I started this blog is to investigate the evolution of Humanity. If I remember right, it is Deepak Chopra who said, “you are not a drop in the ocean, you are an ocean in a drop”. Humans, as social beings, not individuals alone, but are individual members of the society at large. We wouldn’t have been members of society without the existence of the society around us. We so take the existence of society around us for granted that we hardly even notice it’s there. But the society as a whole has an influence on us and the society as a whole consists of individual members. So an individual and the society cannot be separated. In a way, the individual and the society are the same, just like a drop in the ocean, and the ocean are the same. I believe that the way I think and act can, and has, an effect on not just the society, but the physical universe as a whole.However, for the this discussion I would like to only put the society into the perspective and not the universe, because the correlation between the social phenomena and thinking is much more tangible than the correlation between the social phenomena and the physical phenomena of the universe. Since a lot of variables around us contribute towards our individual evolution as a human being, I considered my thinking as Human Development.

When I started researching the term Human Development, I realised that I am not the inventor of the term. United Nations already had a programme in place called Human Development – a term which was invented by Dr. Amartya Sen. Human Development is a part of United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). For years, UN has been publishing their yearly Human Development Report (HDR). This post is a reminder that the UN has a very powerful programme in place with Sustainable Development Goals.

I am not a part of the UNDP; and UNDP does not know who I am. But I invite everyone to have a look at these links and move towards these goals step by step in whichever way we can contribute.

Why the Book ‘Think and Grow Rich’

Here is a quick note about my posts on Napoleon Hill’s Think and Grow Rich. Sometime around the mid nineties, at a business conference, a millionaire speaker was asked which one book he could attribute his success to. That book was of course, Napoleon Hill’s ‘Think and Grow Rich’. I took it on to myself to master this book and make my millions. I began by summarising the points of this book in a spreadsheet so that it would make it easier for me to follow the principles (I have a technical background, so I hope you can understand where I come from). I haven’t made my millions, but I thought it is still worth sharing the wisdom of the book so someone else can benefit from it.

I have been sharing the spreadsheets here in the form of these posts. Each chapter (therefore the post associated with it) is an individual spreadsheet. I do not want to publish them all together. Whoever is reading these posts, I think, they would use the knowledge one chapter at a time. I publish when I feel that I am ready. At this point of time, I am about half way through. It won’t be long before all the chapter notes are uploaded.

As far the book is concerned, I believe it is past its copyright period; and it is now available on public domain. Though I have a free pdf, I believe that the author needs to get paid. So I bought a $1 Kindle copy from Amazon. I believe in giving the Universe its due for the gift it has offered us.

Thank you for subscribing.

Sachin Thakur

Think and Grow Rich Principle 6: Organised Planning – The Crystalisation of Desire Into Action

Intelligent planning is essential to success in any undertaking designed to accumulate riches. Here are detailed instructions to those who must begin the accumulation of riches by selling personal services.

It should be encouraging to know that practically all great fortunes began in the form of compensation for personal services, or from the sale of ideas. What else, except ideas and personal services would one not possessed of property have to give in return of riches?

Broadly speaking, there are two types of people in the world. One type is known as the LEADERS, and the others as FOLLOWERS. Decide at the outset whether you intend to become a leader in your chosen calling, or remain a follower. The difference in compensation is vast. The follower cannot reasonably expect the compensation to which a leader is entitled, although many followers make the mistake of expecting such  pay.

It is no disgrace to be a follower. On the other hand, it is no credit to remain a follower. Most great leaders began in the capacity of followers. They became great leaders because they were intelligent followers. With few exceptions, the man  who cannot follow a leader intelligently cannot become an efficient leader. The man who can follow a leader most efficiently is usually the man who develops into leadership most rapidly. An intelligent follower has many advantages, among them the opportunity to acquire knowledge from his leader.

THE MAJOR ATTRIBUTES OF LEADERSHIP

The following are important factors of leadership:

  1. UNWAVERING COURAGE: Based upon knowledge of self, and based on one’s occupation. No follower wishes to be dominated by a leader who lacks self-confidence and courage. No intelligent follower will be dominated by such leader very long.
  2. SELF CONTROL: The man who cannot control himself can never control others. Self-control sets a mighty example for one’s followers, which the more intelligent ones will emulate.
  3. A KEEN SENSE OF JUSTICE: Without a sense of fairness and justice, no leader can command and retain the respect of his followers.
  4. DEFINITENESS OF DECISION: The man who wavers in his decisions, shows that he is not sure of himself. He cannot lead others successfully.
  5. DEFINITENESS OF PLANS: The successful leader must plan his work and work his plan. A leader who moves by guesswork, without practical, definite plans is comparable to a ship without a rudder. Sooner or later he will land on the rocks.
  6. THE HABIT OF DOING MORE THAN PAID FOR: One of the penalties of leadership is the necessity of willingness, upon the part of the leader, to do more than he requires of his followers.
  7. A PLEASING PERSONALITY: No slovenly, careless person can become a successful leader. Leadership calls for respect. Followers will not respect a leader who does not grade high on all the factors of a Pleasing Personality.
  8. SYMPATHY AND UNDERSTANDING: The successful leader must be in sympathy with his followers. Moreover, he must understand them and their problems.
  9. MASTERY OF DETAIL: Successful leadership calls on mastery of details of the leader’s position.
  10. WILLINGNESS TO ASSUME FULL RESPONSIBILITY: The successful leader must be willing to assume responsibility for the mistakes and the shortcomings of his followers. If he tries to shift this responsibility he will not remain the leader. If one of his followers makes a mistake, and shows himself incompetent, the leader must consider that it is he who failed.
  11. COOPERATION: The successful leader must understand, and apply the principle of cooperative effort and be able to induce his followers to do the same. Leadership calls for POWER, and power calls for COOPERATION. There are two forms of leadership. The first one and by far the most effective is LEADERSHIP BY CONSENT of, and with the sympathy of the followers. The second is the LEADERSHIP BY FORCE, without the consent and sympathy of the followers.

TEN MAJOR CAUSES OF FAILURE IN LEADERSHIP: We come now to the major faults of leaders who fail, because it is just as essential to know WHAT NOT TO DO as it is to know what to do.

  1. INABILITY TO ORGANISE DETAILS: Efficient leadership calls for ability to organise and to master details. No genuine leader is ever “too busy” to do anything which may be required of him in his capacity as a leader. When a man, whether he is a leader of a follower, admits that he is “too busy” to change his plans, or to give attention to any emergency, he admits his inefficiency. The successful leader must be the master of all details connected with his position. That means, of course, that he must acquire the habit of relegating details to capable lieutenants.
  2. UNWILLING TO RENDER HUMBLE SERVICE: Truly great leaders are willing, when occasion demands, to perform any form of labour which they would ask another to perform. “The greatest among ye shall be the servant of all” is a truth which all able leaders observe and respect.
  3. EXPECTATION OF PAY FOR WHAT THEY KNOW INSTEAD OF WHAT THE DO WITH THAT WHICH THEY KNOW: The world does not pay men for what they know. It pays them for what they do or induce others to do.
  4. FEAR OF COMPETITION FROM FOLLOWERS: The leader who fears that one of his followers may take his position is practically sure to realise that fear sooner or later. The able leader trains understudies to whom he may delegate, at will, any of the details of his position. Only in this way may a leader multiply himself and prepare himself to be at many places, and give attention to many things at one time. It is an eternal truth that men receive more pay for their ABILITY TO GET OTHERS TO PERFORM, than they could possibly earn by their own efforts. An effective leader may, through his knowledge of his job and magnetism of his personality, greatly increase the efficiency of others, and induce them to render more service and better service than they could render without his aid.
  5. LACK OF IMAGINATION: Without imagination, the leader is incapable of meeting emergencies, and of creating plans by which to guide his followers efficiently.
  6. SELFISHNESS: The leader who claims all his honour for the work of his followers, is sure to be met by resentment. The really great leader CLAIMS NONE OF THE HONOURS. He is contented to see the honours, when there are any, go to his followers, because he knows that most men will work harder for commendation and recognition than they will for money alone.
  7. INTEMPERANCE: Followers do not respect an intemperate leader. Moreover, intemperance in any of its various forms, destroys the endurance and the vitality of all who indulge in it.
  8. DISLOYALTY: The leader who is not loyal to his trust, and to his associates, those above him, and those below him, cannot long maintain his leadership.
  9. EMPHASIS OF THE “AUTHORITY” OF LEADERSHIP: The efficient leader leads by encouraging, and not by trying to instil fear in the hearts of his followers. The leader who tries to impress his followers with his “authority” comes within the category of leadership through FORCE. If a leader is a REAL LEADER, he will hae no need to advertise that fact except by his conduct – his sympathy, understanding, fairness, and a demonstration that he knows his job.
  10. EMPHASIS ON TITLE: The competent leader requires no “title” to give him the respect of his followers. The man who makes too much over his title generally has little else to emphasise. The doors to the office of the real leader ae open to all who wish to enter, and his working quarters are free from formality or ostentation.

SELF-ANALYSIS QUESTIONNAIRE FOR PERSONAL INVENTORY

  1. Have I attained the goal which I established as my objective for this year? (You should work with a definite yearly objective to be attained as a part of your major objective.)
  2. Have I delivered service of the best possible QUALITY of which I was capable, or could I have improved any part of this service?
  3. Have I delivered service in the greatest possible QUANTITY of which I was capable?
  4. Has the spirit of my conduct been harmonious, and cooperative at all times?
  5. Have I permitted the habit of PROCRASTINATION to decrease my efficiency, and if so, to what extent?
  6. Have i improved my PERSONALITY, and if so, in what ways?
  7. Have I been PERSISTENT in following my plans through to completion?
  8. Have I reached decisions PROMPTLY AND DEFINITELY on all occasions?
  9. Have I permitted any one or more of the six basic fears to decrease my efficiency?
  10. Have I been either “over-cautious”, or “under-conscious”?
  11. Has my relationship with my associates in work been pleasant, or unpleasant? If it has been unpleasant, has the fault been partly, or wholly mine?
  12. Have I dissipated any of my energy through lack of CONCENTRATION of effort?
  13. Have I been open-minded and tolerant in connection with all subjects?
  14. In what way have I improved my ability to render service?
  15. Have I been intemperate in any of my habits?
  16. Have I expressed, either openly or secretly, any form or EGOTISM?
  17. Has my conduct toward my associates been such that it has induced them to RESPECT me?
  18. Have my opinions and DECISIONS been based upon guesswork, or accuracy of analysis and THOUGHT?
  19. Have I followed the habit of budgeting my time, my expenses, and my income, and have I been conservative in these budgets?
  20. How much time have I devoted to UNPROFITABLE effort which I might have used to better advantage?
  21. How may I RE-BUDGET my time, and change my habits so I will be more efficient during the coming year?
  22. Have I been guilty of any conduct which was not approved by my conscience?
  23. In what way have I rendered MORE SERVICE AND BETTER SERVICE than I was paid to render?
  24. Have I been unfair to anyone, and if so, in what way?
  25. If I had been the purchaser of my own services for the year, would I be satisfied with the service I have rendered, and if not, why not?
  26. What is my present rating on the fundamental principles of success? (Make this rating fairly, and frankly, and have it checked by someone who is courageous enough to do it accurately).

Think and Grow Rich Principle 4 Exercise – Specialised Knowledge, Personal Experience, or Observations

The accumulation of great fortunes calls for power; and power is acquired through highly organised and intelligently directed specialised knowledge, but that knowledge does not necessarily have to be in the possession of the man who accumulates the fortune.

To a large extent your purpose in life, the goal towards which you are working will determine what knowledge you need. With this question settled, your next move requires that you have accurate information concerning dependable sources of knowledge. It can be obtained by

  • One’s experience and education,
  • Experience and education available through cooperation of others (Master Mind Alliance),
  • Colleges and Universities,
  • Public Libraries (Through books and periodicals in which can be found all the knowledge organised by civilisation,
  • Specialised training courses

There is no fixed price for sound ideas. Back of all ideas is specialised knowledge.

Think and Grow Rich Principle 3 Exercise – Autosuggestion

Topic: Autosuggestion

  • Go into some quiet spot (preferably in bed at night) where you will not be disturbed or interrupted, close your eyes, and repeat aloud (so  you may hear your own words) the written statement of money you intend to accumulate, the time limit for its accumulation, and a description of the service or merchandise you intend to give in return for the money. As you carry out these instructions, SEE YOURSELF ALREADY IN POSSESSION OF THE MONEY.

For example: suppose that you intend to accumulate $50,000 by the end of Janaury, five years hence, that you intend to give persoal services in return for the money, in the Capacity of a Salesman. The written statement of your purpose should be similar to the following:

By the end of January 20 – -, I will have in my possession $50,000, which will come to me in various amounts from time to time during interim.”

“In return for this money I will give the most efficient service of which I am capable, rendering the fullest possible quantity, and the best possible quality of service in my capacity of Salesman of (describe the service of merchandise you intend to sell).”

“I believe that I will have this money in my possession. My faith is so strong that I can now see this money before my eyes. I can touch it with my hands. It is now awaiting transfer to me at the time, and in proportion that I deliver the service I intend to render in return for it. I am awaiting a plan by which to accumulate this money, and I will follow that plan, when it is received.” 

  • Repeat this programme night and morning until you can see, (in your imagination) the money you intend to accumulate.
  • Place a written copy of your statement where you can see it night and morning, and read it just before retiring, and upon arising until it has been memorised. 

 

 

 

Writing a Business Plan

Preparing a Business Plan

The Business Plan

Venture capitalists view hundreds of business plans every year. The business plan must therefore convince the venture capitalist that the company and the management team have the ability to achieve the goals of the company within the specified time. The business plan should explain the nature of the company’s business, what it wants to achieve and how it is going to do it. The company’s management should prepare the plan and should set challenging but achievable goals.

The length of the business plan depends on the particular circumstances but, as a general rule, it should be no longer than 10 pages. It is important to use plain English – especially if you are explaining technical details. Avoid jargon and general position statements.

The following are essential areas to cover in your business plan.

Executive Summary

This is the most important section and is often best written last. It summarises your business plan and is placed at the front of the document. It is vital to give this summary significant thought and time, as it may well determine the amount of consideration the venture capital investor will give to your detailed proposal.

It should be clearly written and powerfully persuasive, yet balance “sales talk” with realism in order to be convincing. It should be limited to no more than two pages and include the key elements of the business plan.

Background on the company

Provide a summary of the fundamental nature of the company and its activities, a brief history of the company and an outline of the company’s objectives.

The product or service

Explain the company’s product or service in plain English. This is especially important if the product or service is technically orientated. A non-specialist must be able to understand the plan.

Emphasise the product, or service’s competitive edge or unique selling point.

Describe the stage of development of the product/s or service (seed, early stage, expansion or MBO). Is there an opportunity to develop a second-generation product in due course? Is the product or service vulnerable to technological redundancy? If relevant, explain what legal protection you have on the product, such as patents obtained, pending or required. Assess the impact of legal protection on the marketability of the product.

Market analysis

You need to convince the venture capital firm that there is a real commercial opportunity for the business and its products and services. Offer the reader a combination of clear description and analysis, including a realistic “SWOT” (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis.

  • Define your market and explain in what industry sector your company operates. What is the size of the whole market? What are the prospects for this market? How developed is the market as a whole, i.e. developing, growing, mature, declining?
  • How does your company fit within this market? Who are your competitors? For what proportion of the market do they account? What is their strategic positioning? What are their strengths and weaknesses? What are the barriers to new entrants?
  • Describe the distribution channels. Who are your customers? Comment on the price sensitivity of the market.
  • Explain the historic problems faced by the business and its products or services in the market. Have these problems been overcome, and if so, how?
  • Address the current issues, concerns and risks affecting your business and the industry in which it operates.
  • What are your projections for the company and the market?
  • Assess future potential problems and how they will be tackled, minimised or avoided.

Marketing

Having defined the relevant market and its opportunities, it is necessary to address how the prospective business will exploit these opportunities.

  • Outline your sales and distribution strategy.
  • What is your planned sales force?
  • What are your strategies for different markets?
  • What distribution channels are you planning to use and how do these compare with your competitors?
  • Identify overseas market access issues and how these will be resolved.
  • What is your pricing strategy? How does this compare with your competitors?
  • What are your advertising, public relations and promotion plans?

Business operations

Explain how your business operates, how you make the products or provide the service, first in brief and then in more detail.

  • What are the sources of raw materials? Who are your suppliers?
  • What are the labour requirements?
  • What is the company’s approach to industrial relations?
  • Outline your company’s approach to research and development.

The management team

Demonstrate that the company has the quality of management to be able to turn the business plan into reality. The senior management team ideally should be experienced in complementary areas, such as management strategy, finance and marketing, and their roles should be specified. The special abilities each member brings to the venture should be explained.

  • A concise curriculum vitae should be included for each team member, highlighting the individual’s previous track record in running, or being involved with, successful businesses.
  • Identify the current and potential skills gaps and explain how you aim to fill them. Venture capital firms will sometimes assist in locating experienced managers where an important post is unfilled, provided they are convinced about the other aspects of your plan.
  • Explain your controls, performance measures and remuneration for management, employees and others.
  • List your auditors and other advisers.
  • Include organisation chart.

Financial projections

Consider using an external accountant to verify and act as “devil’s advocate” for this part of the plan. AVCAL has a range of national and regional corporate members who could help you with this. You should search AVCAL’s member directory.

  • Realistically assess sales, costs (fixed and variable), cash flow and working capital.
  • Produce a pro-forma profit and loss statement and balance sheet. Ensure these are easy to update and adjust.
  • Assess your present and prospective future margins in detail, bearing in mind the potential impact of competition.
  • Explain the research undertaken to support these assumptions.
  • Demonstrate the company’s growth prospects over, for example, a three to five year period.
  • What is the value attributed to the company’s net tangible assets?
  • What is the level of gearing (i.e. debt to shareholders’ funds ratio)?
  • How much debt is secured on what assets and what is the current value of those assets?
  • What are the costs associated with the business? Remember to split sales costs (e.g. communications to potential and current customers) and marketing costs (e.g. research into potential sales areas).
  • What are the sale prices or fee charging structures?
  • What are your budgets for each area of your company’s activities?
  • What are you doing to ensure that you and your management keep within these or improve on these budgets?
  • Present different scenarios for the financial projections of sales, costs and cash flow for the short and long term.
  • Ask “what if?” questions to ensure that key factors and their impact on the financings are carefully and realistically assessed. For example, what if sales decline by 20 per cent, or supplier costs increase by 30 per cent, or both? How does this affect the profit and cash flow projections?
  • Keep the plan feasible. Avoid being overly optimistic. Highlight challenges and show how they will be met.
  • Relevant historical financial performance should also be presented. The company’s historical achievements can help give meaning, context and credibility to future projections.
  • Consider the amount and use of capital required and exit opportunities.
  • State how much finance is required by your business and from what sources (i.e. management, venture capital, banks and others) and explain the purpose for which it will be applied.
  • Outline the capital structure and ownership before and after financing.

Exit

Consider how the venture capital investors will exit the investment and make a return. Possible exit strategies for the investors may include floating the company on a stock exchange or selling the company to a trade buyer.

Further advice

As further direction, below is a guide from serial entrepreneur Dr. McKaskill on developing a comprehensive, informative and appropriate investor presentation.

The Investor Pitch – by Dr. Tom McKaskill, FCPA

Credit : Avcal Australia

Altruism versus Individualism

There are different paradigms to look at this issue. One of the paradigms is from Sociology. A paradigm of Sociology is that the Society exists for the Individual, rather than vice versa. The society exists for the individual to prosper. A stable, developed society may be beneficial for everyone and it appears that society comes above the individual. However, it is still the Individual that matters. Society collectively exists so that each member benefits by co-existing. Nation is a formal structure given to the society. The laws for the proper functioning of the Nation exist categorically, where a society exists because of traditions. The principles that make a Society exist are abstract. For the societal norms to become laws, they have to be documented so that they become statutory laws.
The other paradigm that exists is from Ayn Rand’s book Fountainhead. In her books, Ayn Rand talks about the inherent Selfishness of the Individual. She appears to endorse Selfishness, as it is a fact of life by my interpretation of her.
The Individual is almost always at war with the Society. An individual grows by responding to the stimuli. The individual has desires which may be morally acceptable or unacceptable. But in a social structure, the actions of the individual are governed and limited by social standards. What may be morally right for one person may be morally wrong for another. However, both sides have to agree to the civil or statutory law. The statutory law in this case may in favour of one, or the other; or it may be a compromise. In any case, certain elements feel disadvantaged. A law in favour of A may make B feel disadvantaged and vice versa. A compromised law may in different situations, on different occasions may make one or both parties disadvantaged. A compromise may appear like appeasement. Appeasement of A and B may make another element C completely sidelined by A and B.
Statutory laws that are accepted unanimously relate to public infrastructure. Laws that maintain a smooth flow of traffic are universally liked, no matter if you are A or B or C. A driver driving a car follows the same rule whether they are A, B, C or D. A pedestrian crossing the road has to wait for the pedestrian signal to turn green whether they are of group A, B, C or D.
The Nation is defined by its ideology – Democratic, Secular, Christian, Islamic etc. Ideologies that define Governance encompass Religion. That is when they are effective. In other words, they are effective when they are implemented by looking at the human needs of the society rather than ethnic or religious. They are effective when there is no preferential treatment to one group over another – whether the group in question is a majority group or minority. The ideal situation may never occur where everything is black and white for everyone. The Nation still has to stick to its national ideology for it to be considered a Nation.